Rabu, 05 November 2008

MATTE ELECTROREFINING: kumpulan informasi

A Bright Future for copper electrowinning

Michael Moats and Michael Free

JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Volume 59, Number 10 / October, 2007

Abstract :

Over the past 40 years, the copper mining industry has undergone a dramatic shift toward hydrometallurgical extraction of copper at the mine site. This has increased the importance of recovering high-purity copper by electrowinning. High-purity cathode production was achieved by implementing numerous technologies including superior lead-alloy anodes, improved cathode handling and/or stainless steel blanks, better electrolyte control, and advanced tankhouse automation. In the future, it is projected that tankhouses will produce high-quality copper at lower costs using technologies that could include dimensionally stable anodes, alternative anode reactions, innovative cell designs, novel electrolyte circulation systems, and more. This paper reviews existing commercial copper electrowinning technologies and discusses advances that need to be made to implement future technologies.


Warren spring laboratory report electrodissolution in hydrometallurgy
Hydrometallurgy, Volume 2, Issue 2, December 1976, Page 193
D.S. Flett, R.G. Bautista


Electrodissolution processes in hydrometallurgy have been reviewed in this report. While a considerable amount of basic definitive studies and laboratory scale development work has been carried out, particularly on metal and mineral sulphide slurries, commercial application of electro-dissolution has been restricted to electrorefining of metals and to cast matte anode electrolysis of nickel. It is concluded that considerable scope exists for the development of electrodissolution processes for slurries of mineral sulphides provided that satisfactory potential control can be achieved in the slurry. Electrooxidation processes producing the oxidant in a water soluble form may be the simplest way of obtaining potential control in these systems.
This work was supported by the Chemicals and Minerals Requirements Board (Department of Industry).

Nickel and Cobalt Refining at Niihama Nickel Refinery
Kurokawa, Harumsa; Takaishi, Kazuyuki
Journal of MMIJ. Vol. 123, no. 12, pp. 678-681. 2007

Abstract :
Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd. (SMM) is the only one producer of electrolytic nickel and cobalt in Japan. The nickel and cobalt business of SMM, started in 1939, is the history of technological innovation and development. As the major projects developed in the past, SMM underwent a conversion to nickel matte electrorefining process in 1970, a establishment of cobalt refining process with an introduction of Mixed Sulfide raw material in 1975, a conversion to Matte Chlorine Leach Electro-winning process (MCLE) in 1992, and innovations of Cobalt Electro-winning and Nickel Chemical process technology in 1999. Throughout these technological developments, in 1998, SMM has accomplished to increase the production capacity of electrolytic nickel up to 3,000t/M. Furthermore, in 2004, SMM constructed a High Pressure Acid Leach (HPAL) plant in Parawan Island, Philippine, where all the SMM's refining technology was integrated. To treat the Nickel/Cobalt Mixed Sulfide (MS) produced at the HPAL plant, SMM has improved the MCLE process at Niihama Nickel Refinery. Today, applying MCLE and HPAL technology, SMM treats the oxide Laterite Ore and constantly produces electrolytic nickel with very high quality.

The Direct Electrorefining of Copper Matte
McKay, D J
JOM (USA). Vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 44-48. Mar. 1993

Abstract :
Direct electrorefining of copper matte would be a desirable alternative to Cu converting and its associated troublesome sulfur dioxide emissions. After > 100 years of study, however, no commercial process has been developed, even though an analogous process for the direct electrorefining of nickel matte anodes has been operating successfully for several decades. The unique difficulties associated with Cu matte electrorefining are related to the properties of the matte's decomposition products.

Recent Operation and Improvements of Nickel Matte Electrorefining at SMM Nickel Refinery
Ishikawa, Y; Matsuno, M; Fukui, I; Ihara, Y
Rare Metals '90; Kokura, Kitakyushu; Japan; 14-16 Nov. 1990. pp. 141-144. 1991

SMM (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd.) began to produce electrolytic Ni by the matte electrorefining process at Niihama Nickel Refinery in 1970. Since then, many technical and engineering developments have been carried out. As a result, the production capacity and the productivity of the process have been increased and the quality of the product has been improved. Some of the recent developments are described. These involve the rationalization in the slime treatment process and the mechanization of the shearing and packaging section. Owing to these developments, the process economy and the productivity have been considerably improved. Graphs. 3 ref.—AA

Effect of Slime Layer on the Anode Potential in Nickel Matte Electrorefining
Inami, T; Ishikawa, Y; Tsuchida, N; Hirao, M
Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel and Cobalt; Phoenix, Arizona; USA; 25-28 Jan. 1988. pp. 429-445. 1988

Abstract :
The potential of the Ni matte anode was measured during the matte electrolysis in the commercial cell. The slime layer consists of elemental sulfur and was found to greatly influence the potential of anode. The measurements of porosity and permeability of the slime suggest that the voltage drop of the slime layer dominates the potential. Furthermore, the diffusion of the electrolyte through the slime layer is also one of the factors to determine the potential. In addition, the Cu content of the Ni matte anode was found to affect the change in the anode potential during the electrolysis. The role of Cu on the anodic dissolution of Ni matte is discussed. 8 ref.—AA

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